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双语阅读:医院观测疾病情况 为紧急情况作准备 [复制链接]

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发表于 2014-5-28 09:41:30 AM |显示全部楼层
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, has infected more than 500 people since it was first identified in 2012.  About 30 percent of those who contract it die. The steep increase in the number of cases in recent months, and the fact that people in Asia, Europe and North America have come down with the virus, have raised concern that the situation may worsen.

自2012年被发现以来,中东呼吸综合症感染人数已经超过500人。大约有30%的感染者死亡。近几个月患病人数大幅增加,加上亚洲、欧洲和美洲都有人患病的情况,人们担忧情况的的恶化。

The last pandemic occurred in 2009, with the H1N1 influenza virus. The World Health Organization says MERS is a long way from becoming a pandemic. Most cases have been in Saudi Arabia, among people with close contact with MERS patients or with camels that carry the virus.

最近的一场大规模流行病是2009年由甲型H1N1流感病毒引发的。世界卫生组织说中东呼吸综合症还不足以形成大规模流行病。大多数病例发生于沙特阿拉伯地区,患者集中于与中东呼吸综合症患者或患病骆驼有密切接触的人群中。

However, a virus can change at any time, so officials like Dr. LaMar Hasbrouck, who heads the Illinois department of public health, say there is need for concern.

但是,病毒随时都会变异,所以哈斯布鲁克博士等卫生官员说有必要担心这个问题。

"It's a new virus.  It has a very high death rate, but we need to learn more about how easily it's transmitted, and what are some of the signs and symptoms," said Hasbrouck.

伊利诺伊州公共卫生部门哈斯布鲁克博士说:“这是一种新型病毒。这种病毒的死亡率非常高,但是我们需要进一步了解这种 病毒如何轻易传播的程度、以及患病迹象和症状。”

Many hospitals already have plans to prevent the virus from spreading. At The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, it's Dr. Gabe Kelen's responsibility to ensure the plan covers all of the 46,000 people at the clinics and medical centers, as well as the university.

很多医院已经开始实行防止病毒传播的计划。凯伦博士在位于巴尔的摩的约翰·霍普金斯大学医院工作,他的任务是让这一计划涵盖到大学。

“I’m not that concerned yet, however, for our level of preparation; we want to stay ahead of the curve. That should this happen; we’re not playing catch-up," said Kelen.

约翰·霍普金斯医学院凯伦博士说:“但是,我现在不是很担心我们准备的水平;我们想保持领先。一旦它爆发了,我们不需要事后再做准备。”

This is not just for MERS, but for any contagious disease.

这不只是针对中东呼吸综合症,也针对任何接触性传染病。

"When anyone comes into the emergency department with an influenza-like illness, we already have a protocol to screen them and to test them and if we believe they may have a serious infection, they get isolated, they get a mask.  Anyone who goes in after to deal with that patient has certain precautions," he said.

凯伦博士说:“当急诊部门出现有流行疾病症状的患者时,我们已经有对他们进行检测的方案,如果我们认为他们可能患有严重传染病,他们会被隔离,会给他们带口罩。医治这类患者的所有人都会有一定的预防措施。”

Doctors, nurses, even the cleaning staff, might have to wear gowns, gloves and special masks.

医生,甚至是保洁人员都必须穿医院罩衣,戴手套和特制的口罩。

During the H1N1 influenza pandemic, hospitals set up special clinics, some in tents outside the building, to diagnose patients suspected of having the flu. This practice could be reinstated to prevent the spread of a virus, and lower the chance it could mutate into something even more deadly.

几年前,在甲型H1N1流感病毒流行时,医院在急诊室外成立了用来诊断疑似该疾病患者的特殊诊所。为了防止这一病毒的蔓延,他们可能会恢复这一做法。

“The more often it [a virus] gets transmitted, the more the virus replicates.  The more the virus replicates and in different hosts, the more likely its genetic makeup may change," said Kelen.

凯伦博士说:“病毒传播地越频繁,它们复制地就越多。它们复制地越多,并因为存在在不同宿主里,它的基因构成越有可能改变。”

After the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome, or SARS, more than a decade ago, the world learned that an infectious disease anywhere is a health challenge everywhere, largely because of air travel.  Countries learned they had to share information about diseases in order to control them.

十多年前,在严重的呼吸综合症或非典型性肺炎爆发后,人们懂得了传染性疾病在世界任何地方都是健康难题,很大程度是由于空气传播。各国发现,要想控制疾病的传播,他们需要分享信息。

Later this year, Saudi Arabia will host millions of religious pilgrims.  Health officials the world over will be carefully watching.

十月,沙特阿拉伯将举行数百万穆斯林参加的宗教朝圣活动。世界各地卫生会密切关注此事。
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